Therapist’s position: We must take a proactive stance to connect families with the resources they need, whether a church, advocate for school system, or social service
The PreMigration Experience:
First look at the degree of trauma experienced in the pre-migration. terror and multiple losses. 85% of children are separated from at least one parent during the immigration process and 49% separated from both parents.
Reunification can be difficult for both the child and the mother. Mother dreams of seeing child, while child has made friends, language, comforting foods, and a way of life disrupted by unfamiliar parents.
The Post migration Experience: Cultural bereavement is central to the lives of refugees and immigrants. Continually seek to make meaning of their lives.
Class and Race: Degree of racism and shortage of opportunities in the new country for immigrants. 76% of African immigrants come as professional and then decide to stay, are unable to secure jobs in their area of skill or profession. Get low status jobs.
Health: Immigration is associated with a decline in health for Latinos, including depression among children separated from their families. Those coming from developing countries and countries where the majority is Black is at highest risk for schizophrenia.
Culture of Origin, Acculturation and Biculturality: primary issue for immigrant families is the level of difference in values b/w the culture of origin and the dominant culture of the US. Sometimes clients have trouble in their culture of origin as well, and it is useful to find out whether a family’s values and behaviors are representative of their culture of origin or idiosyncratic within that culture.
Parent-Child Struggles: common cause of this concerns rates of acculturation. Different expectations between the parent and child of how they should act contributes to interfamilial conflict. Biculturality Effectiveness Training define the conflict not as between generations but as between cultures.
Politics, Critical Issues, and Nascent Trends: Immigrants who come out of war they cannot explain or understand are often asked to act as the spokespersons for their home countries. They feel targeted for conditions and events over which they have no influence.
Impact on US laws and their enforcement on both documented and undocumented immigrants, many of whom feel unsafe, unwanted, and targeted.
We must explore experiences of loss and trauma, and be able to look at discriminatory policies, racism, classism, and xenophobia.
Ch 29 Working with African Americans and Trauma
African American, particularly those living in poverty are vulnerable to trauma situations such as natural disasters.
Ongoing debate of whether racism can qualify as a cause for PTSD.
Katrina is an example of the double trauma that can occur during disaster situations for African Americans and other people of color: 1) the disaster-related traumas of loss of life, home, and community, physical dislocation, and separation from loved ones. 2) a second level of trauma caused by the effects of racism and poverty.
Virtual Communities: transnationals continue to have a presence in their communities of origin by participating in causes and social projects, these connections help them deal with losses of social and cultural capital while assuaging feelings of guilt for leaving to acquire more resources.
Legacies in Motion: Second generation and transnationalism. Telling stories to share the past, to create bridges with the present, and to caution against excessive Americanization is one of the rituals of immigrant family life that lend a sense of narrative coherence and family continuity. Children of immigrant may become emotional transmigrants – idealizing their parents country of origin.
Theories of acculturation and transnationalism: Acculturation theory was based on the idea that there is only one place a person can call “home”. New immigrants and their children combine transnational and assimilative practices inside and outside their homes at different stages of their lives and that they use these various combinations to construct their flexible bicultural identities. (Latina women prefer to marry American men b/c more egalitarian). transnationalism and assimilation as coexisting.
Binational comparative studies: compared Mexican immigrants and those who migrated. The immigrants suffered emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse, PTSD, greater disability and physical problems. Interviews found that a large number of Mexican families requesting therapy were connected with the departure of family members in the US.
Therapist must be transnational in their thinking and practices by making use of the various new technologies of communication to include the client’s families and communities in their places of origin in process of maintaining and renewing family life at long distance.
Ch 3 Migration and the disruption of the social network.
Correlation b/w quality of the personal social support system and the individual’s health and chances of survival. (Vignette on Filipino family and son with phys. issues)
The experience of migration constitute a narrative that is legitimate and meaningful subject of the therapeutic conversation.
Migration unavoidably overloads any family, and especially parents. As needs are unsatisfied, complaints and resentment often ensue, escalating in lack of partner’s needs and lack of availability.
The dedication to fulfilling children’s needs is frequently a smoke screen to hide the needs of the adults.
Therapists must maintain an empathetic, contextualizing, and normalizing stance, with assumptions of competence and good intent about the participants’ behaviors.
Ch 27 Working with Immigrant and Refugee families
Most refugees are escaping wars and internal conflicts in their home countries. they are young with no professional skills and enter in low paid service jobs. They are underemployed, subjected to racism, and may suffer mental health problems including anxiety and clinical depression.
It is critical to generate an understanding that includes these contexts of immigrant/refugee experience. focus on the strength and resilience and explore how the challenges of migration affect refugees and immigrants.
If you are looking to take your fitness to the next level or want to reach your goals in a quick, but safer manner, then yes, you need to work with a trainer. Even if you are a seasoned fitness enthusiast, working with a trainer can always help you. The crazy thing, when trainers want to learn new exercises, they will either watch a trainer or take some sessions from a trainer. As a last fact, even the professional athletes work with trainers because they know what is needed to take them to the next level.
Portland Oregon Fitness