Rethinking motherhood: childlessness seems to threaten the patriarchal social order. Collectivistic cultures promote “other mother” – ex: mother a niece or nephew.
Research found prolonged psychological distress is linked to involuntary childlessness and not to voluntary childlessness.
Conventional values emphasizing biological motherhood tend to create a hierarchy of womanhood without attending to issues of racism, sexism, classism, homophobia, and other social inequities.
Ch 14 Going Home: Orphan’s journey from Chicago to Poland and Back
Simpson interviewed adults who grew up in orphanages, many were furtive about their past as if they had been in reform schools, and were unable to rid themselves of the feeling that they were somehow responsible for having been institutionalized.
Ch 23 Latinas in the US
Latinas adapt to mainstream American culture in flux. There is a process of selective adaptation, becoming American only to the extent that it feels safe.
Therapeutic interventions to help Latinas build bridges that connect the two worlds and to provide a safe place from which to choose what to keep from the old culture and what to take from the new. The goal is to encourage transformation and liberation of the spirit by validating personal strengths, maintaining family connections, and creating a sense of community and support.
Good little Girls: Latinas raised by mother to behave and be respective. In therapy there is often discourse b/w the mother and daughter. Therapist gently put a stop to the mother’s yelling and began to address the care and love that the mother and daughters feel for each other.
Myth: Latina women must all be virgins. This myth emanates from the dbl. standard about gender roles in patriarchal societies, which limits the sexual freedom of women and gives men authority over them.
Studies found that in the US, by the time adolescents reach the 10th grade, 45% of students have had sex. In 2000 Latinas in this country had the highest birth rate. Latina American culture, girls tend to be supervised more closely when they go out with their friends. The extent that these values are held onto depend on level of education, social status, and whether in a rural or urban area. The greater the cultural gap b/w families and the new culture, the more likely for conflicts b/w mother and daughter about virginity, as children tend to adapt faster than parents to new culture.
Latina Lesbians: They fear rejection by their mothers, the culture, and the community, often hiding and denying who they are while feeling damaged and unacceptable.
Motherhood: most important goal in life for Latinas. Having children raises status of a woman and is a rite of passage into adulthood, which confirms masculinity of the father and femininity of mother. Working outside the home as a mother send conflicting role messages.
Ch 24 Therapy with Mixed-Race families
Inter-racial couples have doubled every decade since 1970s.